It is the branch of medical science that deals with the health and diseases of women. Gynaecology deals with the diagnosis and treatment of all kinds of diseases related to female reproductive organs. The female reproductive organs related to childbirth is called “obstetric”.
Gynaecological examination is very important for the early diagnosis and treatment of possible diseases. It is not a painful or dolorous procedure. For this reason, women should not be afraid of going to the gynaecological examination and should have regular checkups. Almost all of today’s gynaecological examinations are followed by ultrasonography.
Cancers seen in female reproductive organs are called gynaecological oncology (cancers).
• Cervical Cancer
Cervix cancer is the most common type of cancer among the cancers developed from female reproductive organs. It is mostly seen between the ages of 35-55.
PAP Smear test significantly reduced the incidence of advanced stage cervical cancer.
PAP Smear is only a screen test, and if the result is positive, more advanced examinations such as colposcopy, biopsy, endocervical curettage, conization should be practiced.
Areas with cell changes are identified by colposcopy and biopsies are obtained therefrom.
Cervical punch biopsy:
A small piece is removed from the areas seen suspicious with the punch tool, even without local anesthesia. Local anesthesia is not performed, because there are no pain nerves in this area. At the same time, the uterine celiac cells must be taken and evaluated with curettage.
DIAGNOSIS: Diagnosed by smear, colposcopy, cervical biopsy and endocervical curettage. It is absolutely necessary to carry out advanced examinations in order to perform the staging.
TREATMENT: Cervical cancer is treated by surgery. The treatment depends on the stage of the disease. According to the situation, radiotherapy and chemotherapy treatment is added.
• Uterine Cancer (Endometrium Cancer)
Uterine cancer is a type of cancer usually seen in women over 50 years of age. The most common symptom of uterine cancer is abnormal vaginal bleeding. Vaginal bleeding, especially in menopausal women whose menstrual periods have stopped, should be alarming in terms of cervical cancer. These bleedings can be seen as mild spotting or heavy bleeding. An uncommon symptom of uterine cancer is pain or discomfort in the lower abdomen and pain during sexual intercourse.
DIAGNOSIS: Some tests and methods are used to identify the diagnosis of uterine cancer for certain. These are generally Endometrial biopsy, Vaginal ultrasonography, Hysteroscopy, Curettage, Magnetic Resonance and Computed Tomography.
It is usually an advanced stage when the disease begins to present symptoms.
TREATMENT: In early stage cancers, it is possible to have successful results only with the removal of uterine and cervix, but in advanced uterine cancers, more serious operations and chemotherapy (drug treatment) / radiotherapy (radiation therapy) are required.
• Ovarian Cancer (Ovary Cancer)
Ovarian cancers are the second most common cancer of the female reproductive organs. Although it is often seen in women between the ages of 50-70, it can be seen in women of all ages.
A bad feature of ovarian cancers is that they do not cause complaints before they progress to a certain extent. Therefore, diagnosis of early stage ovarian cancer is very difficult. The first complaint is usually a feeling of swelling and indigestion in the lower abdomen.
DIAGNOSIS: Tumor markers, Ultrasonography, pathology examination by aspirating of the acid fluid in the abdomen (if any), computed tomography
TREATMENT: Treatment of ovarian cancer is the surgery. The size of the surgery depends on the type of cancer and the degree of spread. Chemotherapy or radiotherapy is usually used after surgery.
Urinary incontinence problems and treatments:
Urinary incontinence or leakage of urine is seen twice as more frequent in women than in men. This problem may be too serious for some people to prevent their daily life and normal activities. Although urinary incontinence is often treatable, diagnosis is mostly delayed due to the fact that patients are ashamed to say these complaints.
Bladder prolapse (cystocele), uterine prolapse (prolapsus uteri) and rectal prolapse (rectocele) are common diseases, especially with urinary incontinence.
If there are accompanying pathologies such as ladder prolapse, rectal prolapse or uterine prolapse, surgical intervention is decided accordingly and prolapses are attended with vaginal procedure (from below) and treated with incontinence surgery.